Centres de traitement de l'anxiété en Malaisie

Traitement de l'anxiété

Traitement de l'anxiété

  1. Titre : Centre de traitement de l'anxiété en Malaisie
  2. Author: Matthieu Idle
  3. Éditeur: Alexander Bentley
  4. Commenté: Philippa Or
  5. Traitement de l'anxiété en Malaisie: Nous nous efforçons de fournir les informations les plus à jour et les plus précises sur le Web afin que nos lecteurs puissent prendre des décisions éclairées concernant leurs soins de santé. Notre experts en la matière se spécialisent dans le traitement de la toxicomanie et les soins de santé comportementaux. Nous suivre des directives strictes lors de la vérification des informations et n'utilisez que des sources crédibles lorsque vous citez des statistiques et des informations médicales. Recherchez le badge sur nos articles pour obtenir les informations les plus récentes et les plus précises. Si vous pensez que l'un de nos contenus est inexact ou obsolète, veuillez nous en informer via notre page de contact
  6. Déclaration de protection: Nous utilisons un contenu factuel et publions des documents qui sont recherchés, cités, édités et révisés par des professionnels. Les informations que nous publions ne sont pas destinées à remplacer un avis médical professionnel, un diagnostic ou un traitement. Il ne doit pas être utilisé à la place des conseils de votre médecin ou d'un autre professionnel de la santé qualifié. En cas d'urgence médicale, contactez immédiatement les services d'urgence
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  8. Conseils pour l'anxiété en Malaisie © 2022

Accédez au traitement de l'anxiété en Malaisie aujourd'hui

 

Better Help est l'un des fournisseurs de thérapie en ligne les plus connus en Malaisie. Vous avez peut-être entendu parler des publicités de Better Help en Malaisie sur des podcasts, à la radio ou en avez lu en ligne. Selon les dernières statistiques fournies par Betterhelp, le fournisseur de thérapie en ligne compte près de 2 millions de clients dans le monde. Sa clientèle fait de Better Help le plus grand fournisseur de thérapie en ligne au monde et un choix très populaire pour ceux de la région de Malaisie.

 

Better Help coche de nombreuses cases pour les personnes cherchant un traitement contre l'anxiété en Malaisie. La plate-forme permet aux utilisateurs de se connecter avec des thérapeutes qui peuvent aider avec une variété de problèmes de santé mentale, y compris la dépression, le stress et l'anxiété. De plus, Betterhelp propose des cours et des séminaires ainsi que des séances de thérapie individuelles régulières. Ces sessions visent à aider les clients en Malaisie à résoudre leurs problèmes et à approfondir encore plus le bien-être de la santé mentale.

Spécialisations | Burnout, Anxiété, Dépression, Stress, Gestion de la colère, Dépendances, Deuil, Trouble dépressif saisonnier, Crise de la vie, Arrêt du tabac (entre autres)

 

Programme complet en ligne | Le tarif standard pour la thérapie BetterHelp est de seulement $60 à 90 $ par semaine ou 240 $ à 360 $ par mois.

 

Faits marquants | La plus grande plate-forme de thérapie en ligne pour le traitement de l'anxiété, à faible coût, la messagerie, la vidéo en direct, les appels téléphoniques et le chat en direct, aucun contrat de verrouillage, annulation à tout moment, uniquement des thérapeutes de l'anxiété agréés et accrédités

 

Réductions disponibles | Nous avons négocié une généreuse remise de 20 % pour les lecteurs de notre site Web. Appuyez ici pour obtenir 20 % de réduction

Traitement des troubles anxieux en Malaisie

Il est tout à fait normal de se sentir anxieux ou de ressentir de l'anxiété comme moyen pour votre cerveau de réagir au stress. L'anxiété vous avertit d'un danger possible, et c'est normal de se sentir. Cependant, les troubles anxieux sont très différents des épisodes occasionnels d'anxiété. Les troubles anxieux peuvent être débilitants et laisser une personne se sentir incapable de faire face à la vie. Des études récentes suggèrent qu'au moins 19.8% de la population malaisienne souffre d'épisodes d'anxiété paralysants qui ont un impact sur leur vie.

 

Les centres de traitement de l'anxiété en Malaisie vous permettent de vivre, d'apprendre et de comprendre votre trouble anxieux. Souvent, les clients qui fréquentent les centres de traitement de l'anxiété en Malaisie connaissent une réduction significative et rapide de l'anxiété et, dans de nombreux cas, une rémission complète d'un état débilitant.

 

Parce que les cliniques d'anxiété en Malaisie sont un concept relativement nouveau, certaines personnes et familles voyagent un peu plus loin, souvent entre les États, pour trouver les meilleurs centres de traitement de l'anxiété.

 

Que sont les troubles anxieux en Malaisie ?

 

19.8% des adultes en Malaisie et aux États-Unis en général souffrent de troubles anxieux qui provoquent une anxiété et une peur constantes et accablantes. L'anxiété excessive peut amener une personne à éviter l'école, le travail, la famille, les amis et les situations sociales. Les personnes souffrant de troubles anxieux évitent les personnes et les situations car elles peuvent déclencher des symptômes. Les troubles anxieux peuvent également être causés par un problème de santé sous-jacent. La pensée et l'inquiétude constantes à propos d'une maladie peuvent vous conduire à l'anxiété, et les symptômes du trouble anxieux sont souvent les premiers indicateurs d'une maladie.

 

Symptômes du trouble anxieux

 

Les principaux symptômes des troubles anxieux sont l'inquiétude et la peur. Les clients des centres de traitement de l'anxiété en Malaisie signalent que les symptômes les plus courants sont :

 

  • Panique
  • Peur
  • Sentir qu'un danger se produit ou est sur le point de se produire
  • Insomnie
  • Incapacité à rester calme
  • Difficulté à respirer
  • hyperventilation
  • Palpitations cardiaques
  • Bouche sèche
  • Nausée

 

Traitement des troubles anxieux en Malaisie

 

There are several treatments for anxiety disorders in Malaysia, but residential Anxiety Treatment Centers in Malaysia offer the best, and most lasting treatment solution. Residential anxiety treatment centers in Malaysia are uniquely tailored to each individual and their own issues. Treatment at a Malaysia anxiety clinic may use psychotherapy, holistic treatments, Biochemical restoration and cognitive behavioral therapy sessions.

 

Types de troubles anxieux traités dans des centres en Malaisie

 

Il existe plusieurs types de troubles anxieux traités dans les centres de désintoxication résidentiels en Malaisie et chacun a ses propres symptômes et signes.

 

Centres de traitement des troubles anxieux à Malaisie ou à proximité qui traitent :

 

L'anxiété et comment elle est traitée

 

L'anxiété est une réponse humaine normale au stress. Il est naturel de se sentir nerveux face à une situation stressante, comme un entretien d'embauche, une présentation importante ou un déménagement dans un autre pays. Bien que ce type d'anxiété puisse être désagréable, il n'a généralement pas d'effet débilitant sur la vie d'une personne. Les troubles anxieux sont une catégorie de problèmes de santé mentale caractérisés par des sentiments intenses d'anxiété, de peur ou d'inquiétude qui peuvent persister pendant une longue période.

Comment l'anxiété affecte-t-elle une personne ?

 

Sans traitement approprié, les troubles anxieux peuvent avoir un impact significatif sur l'humeur, l'attitude et le comportement d'une personne et peuvent interférer avec la vie quotidienne. L'anxiété est l'un des problèmes de santé mentale les plus courants en Malaisie et même dans le monde, affectant environ 264 millions de personnes dans le monde. Elle peut affecter n'importe qui à tout âge, bien que les femmes soient plus susceptibles que les hommes d'être diagnostiquées avec des troubles anxieux. Tout le monde éprouve de l'anxiété et des symptômes liés à l'anxiété de temps à autre. Il est naturel de se sentir nerveux dans certaines situations, comme avant un examen important ou un entretien d'embauche.

 

À quel moment l'anxiété devient-elle un problème ?

 

Cependant, lorsque l'anxiété que vous ressentez est persistante, débilitante et disproportionnée par rapport à votre situation, vous pouvez avoir un trouble anxieux.

 

Les troubles anxieux sont divisés en : trouble d'anxiété généralisée, trouble d'anxiété sociale, agoraphobie et autres phobies, trouble d'anxiété de séparation et trouble panique. Lorsque vous souffrez de troubles anxieux, vous pouvez également ressentir de nombreux symptômes physiques, tels que des douleurs abdominales et une transpiration excessive. Vous pouvez ressentir un sentiment croissant de malheur ou de panique. Si vous souffrez d'un trouble anxieux, les symptômes peuvent causer un inconfort important qui devient incontrôlable et persiste pendant des mois, ce qui rend difficile, voire impossible, l'exécution des fonctions quotidiennes normales.

Qu'est-ce que le traitement de l'anxiété en milieu hospitalier?

 

Le traitement de l'anxiété en milieu hospitalier en Malaisie est considéré comme la forme de thérapie la plus efficace. Les centres résidentiels de traitement de l'anxiété offrent un environnement calme et structuré où vous pouvez concentrer pleinement votre énergie sur votre processus de rétablissement sans distractions ni sollicitation du monde extérieur. Le traitement de l'anxiété à domicile est particulièrement efficace pour les personnes atteintes de troubles comorbides, car il les isole des déclencheurs externes menant à la toxicomanie et réduit le risque de rechute.

 

Votre environnement physique peut avoir un impact majeur sur votre rétablissement. Le traitement de l'anxiété en milieu hospitalier offre un environnement sûr et favorable aux personnes qui tentent de gérer les symptômes et les complications par elles-mêmes ou par le biais d'un traitement ambulatoire. Ces établissements offrent une thérapie, des soins de santé, un bien-être général, des stratégies d'adaptation, une thérapie relationnelle et d'autres traitements dispensés par des spécialistes dévoués. Lorsque l'anxiété est submergée et que les autres efforts échouent, il peut être temps d'être hospitalisé. Si vous souffrez d'anxiété, il est peut-être temps de choisir des soins hospitaliers pour vos soins.

 

Benefits of Going to an Anxiety Treatment Center in Malaysia

 

Going to an anxiety treatment center in Malaysia can be helpful for individuals struggling with anxiety. Here are some benefits of going to an anxiety treatment center:

 

Aide professionnelle

 

Les centres de traitement de l'anxiété sont dotés de professionnels formés et expérimentés dans le traitement des troubles anxieux. Ils seront en mesure de fournir une évaluation complète, un diagnostic et un plan de traitement adaptés aux besoins spécifiques de l'individu.

 

La thérapie cognitivo-comportementale est un type courant de therapy in Malaysia. Il enseigne aux clients comment transformer des pensées négatives ou génératrices de panique en pensées positives. Les clients apprennent des façons d'aborder et de gérer leur peur sans anxiété.

 

Talk therapy in Malaysia helps individuals undergoing detox in a variety of ways:

 

  • offre un soutien émotionnel
  • aide les individus à développer des habiletés d'adaptation pour faire face aux envies et aux déclencheurs
  • traiter les problèmes de santé mentale sous-jacents
  • fournir une éducation sur le processus de désintoxication et l'importance d'un rétablissement continu.
  • aider les personnes à identifier et à traiter les traumatismes sous-jacents ou les facteurs de stress qui peuvent avoir contribué à leur toxicomanie
  • développer des façons plus saines de faire face aux problèmes de santé mentale

 

Traitement fondé sur des preuves

 

Anxiety treatment centers in Malaysia offer evidence based treatments such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and exposure therapy, which are proven to be effective in treating anxiety disorders.

 

Environnement favorable

 

Les centres de traitement de l'anxiété offrent un environnement favorable où les individus peuvent se sentir en sécurité et compris. Ils peuvent également aider les individus à se connecter avec d'autres qui vivent des expériences similaires, ce qui peut être très bénéfique.

 

Traitement intensif

 

Anxiety treatment centers in Malaysia typically offer intensive treatment programs, which can include individual therapy, group therapy, and other therapeutic activities. This can be especially beneficial for individuals who need a more intensive level of care.

 

Médicaments

 

Les centres de traitement de l'anxiété peuvent également assurer la gestion des médicaments pour les personnes qui en ont besoin.

 

Traveling to Malaysia for Anxiety Help

 

Most individuals going to an Anxiety Treatment Center in Malaysia live relatively locally. However, some clients need to travel internationally to receive treatment in Malaysia. For these individuals it is très important to get the right Visa and to check the Malaysia Immigration rules. Below are some helpful links to help you check Malaysia Immigration and Visas:

 

Passons à l'international

Le Bureau international des visas

L'Australie en toute simplicité

Visas Canada

 

Qu'est-ce que le traitement ambulatoire de l'anxiété ?

 

Cependant, un programme ambulatoire de qualité dispensé en ligne peut être très bénéfique pour une personne souffrant d'anxiété. Accéder à des professionnels de la plus haute qualité dans le confort de votre foyer, dans un environnement familier et selon votre propre horaire peut en effet limiter l'anxiété supplémentaire ressentie lors de la recherche d'un traitement. Remedy Wellbeing offre l'expérience thérapeutique en ligne la plus populaire au monde pour un programme complet de traitement de l'anxiété.   REMEDY est surtout connu comme le centre de traitement de choix pour les célébrités, les stars du sport et la royauté. Ils sont bien connus pour être la cure de désintoxication la plus chère au monde, traitant les riches et célèbres pour l'épuisement professionnel, la dépression, l'anxiété, les dépendances et la gestion du stress. Remedy a pris son programme et développé un programme en ligne abordable pour les personnes souffrant d'anxiété, où qu'elles se trouvent dans le monde et à n'importe quel stade d'anxiété qu'elles vivent actuellement. Remedy Wellbeing est le principal programme de traitement de l'anxiété au monde.

 

Comprendre la thérapie en ligne pour l'anxiété

 

Le traitement de l'anxiété en ligne en Malaisie peut être une option pour vous si vous recherchez une option de traitement de santé mentale pratique et peu coûteuse. Il existe de nombreuses raisons pour lesquelles vous pourriez être intéressé par une thérapie en ligne, de ne pas avoir accès à un centre de traitement traditionnel localement en Malaisie, à avoir du mal à quitter la maison à cause de votre anxiété. Quelles que soient vos raisons de choisir, il est utile d'en savoir plus sur la thérapie de l'anxiété en ligne avant de plonger tête la première dans votre séance de thérapie à la première personne. Tout d'abord, cela aide à comprendre les types de thérapies que vous pouvez vous attendre à recevoir avec des thérapeutes en ligne pour l'anxiété.

 

Certains thérapeutes en Malaisie s'en tiennent à une seule méthode de traitement, tandis que d'autres peuvent mélanger ou combiner différentes approches thérapeutiques en fonction de vos besoins ou problèmes particuliers. Certaines formes de thérapie qui peuvent être proposées comprennent la thérapie cognitivo-comportementale (TCC), la psychothérapie en ligne, la thérapie d'acceptation et d'engagement (ACT) et la thérapie comportementale dialectique (DBT). Ces formes de thérapie vous aident à contrôler vos pensées anxieuses, à aborder lentement les situations difficiles afin qu'elles finissent par ne pas déclencher autant d'anxiété et à apprendre à faire face et à tolérer la condition. Pour plus informations sur la thérapie en ligne pour l'anxiété Appuyez ici.

Quand devrais-je demander un traitement contre l'anxiété ?

 

Ces maladies mentales peuvent devenir débilitantes et interférer avec votre capacité à fonctionner normalement, sans parler de profiter de la vie. Il y a cependant de l'espoir, car les troubles anxieux sont l'un des types de maladie mentale les plus traitables. Il existe de nombreuses bonnes raisons de demander un traitement, quel qu'il soit, mais si l'anxiété peut vous submerger et causer de graves problèmes dans votre vie, envisagez un traitement intensif offert dans un établissement résidentiel. Cette thérapie de soutien peut vous donner une base solide et vous donner les outils dont vous avez besoin pour rentrer chez vous et gérer votre anxiété.

 

Types de troubles anxieux

 

Vous trouverez ci-dessous certains des troubles anxieux les plus courants que nous traitons en cure de désintoxication.

 

Désordre anxieux généralisé

 

Le type de trouble anxieux le plus courant est le trouble anxieux généralisé, qui se caractérise par des sentiments chroniques de peur et d'inquiétude face à des événements non spécifiques.

 

Trouble panique

 

Les personnes atteintes de trouble panique éprouvent des explosions soudaines de peur intense. Bien que les attaques de panique surviennent généralement après une longue période de stress, elles peuvent également survenir sans déclencheur.

 

Agoraphobie

 

L'agoraphobie est un trouble souvent méconnu caractérisé par une peur des situations où il est difficile de s'échapper ou d'obtenir de l'aide. Trouble d'anxiété sociale : Le trouble d'anxiété sociale est un trouble défini par une peur extrême d'être jugé ou gêné dans des situations sociales. Les personnes atteintes de trouble d'anxiété sociale peuvent se retirer des autres, ce qui peut affecter les relations, la confiance en soi et la carrière. TOC : Le TOC est un trouble mental qui survient lorsqu'une personne a des pensées intrusives qui l'amènent à adopter des comportements répétitifs et parfois destructeurs.

 

Quel est le traitement de l'anxiété ?

 

Aussi connue sous le nom d'orthophonie ou de conseil psychologique, la psychothérapie consiste à travailler avec un thérapeute pour réduire les symptômes d'anxiété. Il peut être un remède efficace contre l'anxiété. La thérapie cognitivo-comportementale (TCC) est la forme de psychothérapie la plus efficace pour les troubles anxieux. L'anxiété peut-elle être complètement guérie avec un traitement?

L'anxiété peut-elle être guérie?

 

L'anxiété est incurable, mais il existe des moyens de prévenir son apparition. Le bon traitement contre l'anxiété peut aider à calmer l'anxiété incontrôlée afin que vous puissiez continuer votre vie. Un grand événement ou un fouillis de petites situations de vie stressantes peuvent déclencher une anxiété excessive, comme un décès dans la famille, le stress au travail ou des soucis financiers constants. Les personnes ayant certains types de personnalité sont plus sujettes aux troubles anxieux que d'autres.

Centres de traitement des troubles anxieux en Malaisie

 

Il existe plusieurs traitements pour les troubles anxieux, mais les centres de traitement résidentiels en Malaisie sont idéaux pour traiter les problèmes. Un centre de traitement résidentiel en Malaisie vous permet de vivre, d'apprendre et de comprendre votre trouble anxieux.

 

Les centres résidentiels de traitement de l'anxiété en Malaisie peuvent utiliser des séances de psychothérapie et de thérapie cognitivo-comportementale. La psychothérapie est une forme de conseil. Il vous permet d'apprendre comment vos émotions influencent votre comportement. Un spécialiste en santé mentale formé en psychothérapie vous écoutera lors des séances. Ils vous parleront de sentiments et de pensées. Après vous avoir écouté, le spécialiste en santé mentale vous proposera des moyens de gérer et de comprendre le trouble anxieux.

 

Cognitive behavioral therapy is a common type of psychotherapy in Malaysia. It teaches clients how to turn negative or panic-creating thoughts into positive thoughts. Clients are taught ways to approach and manage their fear without anxiety. There are residential treatment centers in Malaysia listed below that provide family cognitive behavioral therapy sessions.

Un centre de traitement de l'anxiété en Malaisie est-il fait pour vous ?

L'anxiété est l'un des troubles de santé mentale les plus courants en Malaisie et affecte un grand nombre de la population de différentes manières. La recherche a découvert que les troubles anxieux apparaissent chez un large segment d'individus en Malaisie âgés de plus de 18 ans et affectent 18.1% de la population adulte des États-Unis. C'est environ 40 millions d'Américains chaque année qui sont touchés par des troubles anxieux.

 

La bonne nouvelle pour les individus et leurs familles en Malaisie est que les troubles anxieux sont hautement traitables. Cependant, le problème avec le traitement des troubles anxieux en Malaisie est que seulement 42.1% des personnes aux États-Unis qui souffrent de ce problème de santé mentale reçoivent un traitement adéquat.

 

La plupart des gens en Malaisie ne reçoivent pas d'aide parce qu'ils ne se rendent pas compte que quelque chose ne va pas. D'autres ne reçoivent pas de traitement en raison de la stigmatisation que possèdent la plupart des centres de traitement pour patients hospitalisés. La réputation d'un centre de traitement de l'anxiété pour patients hospitalisés en Malaisie peut modifier la façon dont un individu cherche de l'aide et l'empêcher de se rétablir finalement.

 

La réponse pour obtenir un traitement de première classe dans un environnement sûr consiste à assister à une retraite de luxe contre l'anxiété en Malaisie qui place le client au premier plan de son travail 24 heures sur XNUMX. Une retraite contre l'anxiété en Malaisie a la capacité d'héberger, de traiter et de fournir une guérison à long terme qui enseigne à un client comment gérer son trouble anxieux à l'avenir.

 

Il est très courant qu'une personne souffrant de troubles anxieux en Malaisie souffre également de dépression ou vice versa. Les deux troubles de santé mentale peuvent aller de pair. Cinquante pour cent de toutes les personnes diagnostiquées avec un trouble anxieux en Malaisie souffrent également de dépression. Un centre de traitement de l'anxiété en Malaisie peut traiter les deux troubles et mettre un client sur la voie d'un rétablissement complet.

Trouver un thérapeute de l'anxiété en Malaisie

Nom de l'entreprise Rating Catégories Numéro de téléphone Adresse
Vie efficaceVie efficace
1 examen
Psychologues +60379587702 27B, Jalan 14/20, Seksyen 14, 46100 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaisie

 

Malaysia ( mə-LAY-zee-ə, -⁠zhə; Malais: [məlejsiə]) est un pays d'Asie du Sud-Est. La monarchie constitutionnelle fédérale se compose de treize États et de trois territoires fédéraux, séparés par la mer de Chine méridionale en deux régions : la Malaisie péninsulaire et la Malaisie orientale de Bornéo. La Malaisie péninsulaire partage une frontière terrestre et maritime avec la Thaïlande et des frontières maritimes avec Singapour, le Vietnam et l'Indonésie. La Malaisie orientale partage des frontières terrestres et maritimes avec Brunei et l'Indonésie, et une frontière maritime avec les Philippines et le Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur est la capitale nationale, la plus grande ville du pays et le siège de la branche législative du gouvernement fédéral. La capitale prévue à proximité de Putrajaya est la capitale administrative, qui représente le siège à la fois du pouvoir exécutif (le Cabinet, les ministères fédéraux et les agences) et du pouvoir judiciaire du gouvernement fédéral. Avec une population de plus de 32 millions d'habitants, la Malaisie est le 45ème pays le plus peuplé du monde. Le point le plus méridional de l'Eurasie continentale se trouve à Tanjung Piai. Sous les tropiques, la Malaisie est l'un des 17 pays mégadivers, abritant de nombreuses espèces endémiques.

La Malaisie trouve ses origines dans les royaumes malais qui, à partir du 18e siècle, sont devenus soumis à l'Empire britannique, avec le protectorat britannique des établissements des détroits. La Malaisie péninsulaire a été unifiée sous le nom d'Union malaise en 1946. La Malaisie a été restructurée en Fédération de Malaisie en 1948 et a obtenu son indépendance le 31 août 1957. La Malaisie indépendante s'est unie aux colonies de la couronne britannique de l'époque du nord de Bornéo, du Sarawak et de Singapour le 16 septembre. 1963 pour devenir la Malaisie. En août 1965, Singapour a été expulsée de la fédération et est devenue un pays indépendant distinct.

Le pays est multiethnique et multiculturel, ce qui a un effet significatif sur sa politique. Environ la moitié de la population est ethniquement malaise, avec des minorités de Chinois, d'Indiens et de peuples autochtones. La langue officielle du pays est le malais malais, une forme standard de la langue malaise. L'anglais reste une langue seconde active. Tout en reconnaissant l'islam comme religion établie du pays, la constitution accorde la liberté de religion aux non-musulmans. Le gouvernement est calqué sur le système parlementaire de Westminster et le système juridique est basé sur la common law. Le chef de l'État est un monarque élu, choisi parmi les neuf sultans d'État tous les cinq ans. Le chef du gouvernement est le Premier ministre.

Après l'indépendance, le PIB malaisien a augmenté à un taux moyen de 6.5 % par an pendant près de 50 ans. L'économie a traditionnellement été alimentée par ses ressources naturelles mais se développe dans les secteurs de la science, du tourisme, du commerce et du tourisme médical. La Malaisie a une économie de marché nouvellement industrialisée, classée au troisième rang en Asie du Sud-Est et au 36e rang mondial. Il est membre fondateur de l'ANASE, de l'EAS et de l'OCI et membre de l'APEC, du Commonwealth et du Mouvement des pays non alignés.

Le nom "Malaisie" est une combinaison du mot "Malais" et du suffixe latin-grec "-ia"/"-ία" qui peut être traduit par "terre des Malais". The origin of the word ‘Melayu’ is subject to various theories. It may derive from the Sanskrit “Himalaya”, referring to areas high in the mountains, or “Malaiyur-pura”, meaning mountain town. Another similar theory claims its origin lies in the Tamil words “maïs" et "ur” meaning “mountain” and “city, land”, respectively. Another suggestion is that it derives from the Pamalayu campaign. A final suggestion is that it comes from a Javanese word meaning “to run”, from which a river, the Sungai Melayu (‘Melayu river’), was named due to its strong current. Similar-sounding variants have also appeared in accounts older than the 11th century, as toponyms for areas in Sumatra or referring to a larger region around the Strait of Malacca. The Sanskrit text Vayu Purana, thought to have been in existence since the first millennium CE, mentioned a land named ‘Malayadvipa’ which was identified by certain scholars as the modern Malay peninsula. Other notable accounts are by the 2nd century Ptolemy’s Geographia that used the name Malayu Kulon for the west coast of Golden Chersonese, and the 7th century Yijing’s account of malais.

At some point, the Melayu Kingdom took its name from the Sungai Melayu. ‘Melayu’ then became associated with Srivijaya, and remained associated with various parts of Sumatra, especially Palembang, where the founder of the Malacca Sultanate is thought to have come from. It is only thought to have developed into an ethnonym as Malacca became a regional power in the 15th century. Islamisation established an ethnoreligious identity in Malacca, with the term ‘Melayu’ beginning to appear as interchangeable with ‘Melakans’. It may have specifically referred to local Malays speakers thought loyal to the Malaccan Sultan. The initial Portuguese use of Malais reflected this, referring only to the ruling people of Malacca. The prominence of traders from Malacca led ‘Melayu’ to be associated with Muslim traders, and from there became associated with the wider cultural and linguistic group. Malacca and later Johor claimed they were the centre of Malay culture, a position supported by the British which led to the term ‘Malay’ becoming more usually linked to the Malay peninsula rather than Sumatra.

Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as “Tanah Melayu” (“Malay Land”). Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d’Urville to Oceania in 1826, he later proposed the terms of “Malaysia”, “Micronesia” and “Melanesia” to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term “Polynesia”. Dumont d’Urville described Malaysia as “an area commonly known as the East Indies”. In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as “Melayunesia” or “Indunesia”, favouring the former. The name Malaysia gained some use to label what is now the Malay Archipelago. In modern terminology, “Malay” remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, and smaller islands that lie between these areas.

The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the “Federation of Malaya”, chosen in preference to other potential names such as “Langkasuka”, after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE. The name “Malaysia” was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that “si” represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, and Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state “Malaysia” before the modern country took the name.

Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years. In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries. Their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, and the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fourth or fifth century. The Kingdom of Langkasuka arose around the second century in the northern area of the Malay Peninsula, lasting until about the 15th century. Between the 7th and 13th centuries, much of the southern Malay Peninsula was part of the maritime Srivijayan empire. By the 13th and the 14th century, the Majapahit empire had successfully wrested control over most of the peninsula and the Malay Archipelago from Srivijaya. In the early 15th century, Parameswara, a runaway king of the former Kingdom of Singapura linked to the old Srivijayan court, founded the Malacca Sultanate. The spread of Islam increased following Parameswara’s conversion to that religion. Malacca was an important commercial centre during this time, attracting trade from around the region.

In 1511, Malacca was conquered by Portugal, after which it was taken by the Dutch in 1641. In 1786, the British Empire established a presence in Malaya, when the Sultan of Kedah leased Penang Island to the British East India Company. The British obtained the town of Singapore in 1819, and in 1824 took control of Malacca following the Anglo-Dutch Treaty. By 1826, the British directly controlled Penang, Malacca, Singapore, and the island of Labuan, which they established as the crown colony of the Straits Settlements. By the 20th century, the states of Pahang, Selangor, Perak, and Negeri Sembilan, known together as the Federated Malay States, had British residents appointed to advise the Malay rulers, to whom the rulers were bound to defer by treaty. The remaining five states in the peninsula, known as the Unfederated Malay States, while not directly under British rule, also accepted British advisers around the turn of the 20th century. Development on the peninsula and Borneo were generally separate until the 19th century. Under British rule the immigration of Chinese and Indians to serve as labourers was encouraged. The area that is now Sabah came under British control as North Borneo when both the Sultan of Brunei and the Sultan of Sulu transferred their respective territorial rights of ownership, between 1877 and 1878. In 1842, Sarawak was ceded by the Sultan of Brunei to James Brooke, whose successors ruled as the White Rajahs over an independent kingdom until 1946, when it became a crown colony.

In the Second World War, the Japanese Army invaded and occupied Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore for over three years. During this time, ethnic tensions were raised and nationalism grew. Popular support for independence increased after Malaya was reconquered by Allied forces. Post-war British plans to unite the administration of Malaya under a single crown colony called the “Malayan Union” met with strong opposition from the Malays, who opposed the weakening of the Malay rulers and the granting of citizenship to the ethnic Chinese. The Malayan Union, established in 1946, and consisting of all the British possessions in the Malay Peninsula with the exception of Singapore, was quickly dissolved and replaced on 1 February 1948 by the Federation of Malaya, which restored the autonomy of the rulers of the Malay states under British protection.

During this time, the mostly ethnically Chinese rebels under the leadership of the Malayan Communist Party launched guerrilla operations designed to force the British out of Malaya. The Malayan Emergency (1948–1960) involved a long anti-insurgency campaign by Commonwealth troops in Malaya. On 31 August 1957, Malaya became an independent member of the Commonwealth of Nations. After this a plan was put in place to federate Malaya with the crown colonies of North Borneo (which joined as Sabah), Sarawak, and Singapore. The date of federation was planned to be 31 August 1963 so as to coincide with the anniversary of Malayan independence; however, federation was delayed until 16 September 1963 in order for a United Nations survey of support for federation in Sabah and Sarawak, called for by parties opposed to federation including Indonesia’s Sukarno and the Sarawak United Peoples’ Party, to be completed.

Federation brought heightened tensions including a conflict with Indonesia as well continuous conflicts against the Communists in Borneo and the Malayan Peninsula which escalates to the Sarawak Communist Insurgency and Second Malayan Emergency together with several other issues such as the cross border attacks into North Borneo by Moro pirates from the southern islands of the Philippines, Singapore being expelled from the Federation in 1965, and racial strife. This strife culminated in the 13 May race riots in 1969. After the riots, the controversial New Economic Policy was launched by Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak, trying to increase the share of the economy held by the originaire de. Under Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad there was a period of rapid economic growth and urbanization beginning in the 1980s. The economy shifted from being agriculturally based to one based on manufacturing and industry. Numerous mega-projects were completed, such as the Petronas Towers, the North–South Expressway, the Multimedia Super Corridor, and the new federal administrative capital of Putrajaya. However, in the late 1990s, the Asian financial crisis almost caused the collapse of the currency and the stock and property markets, although they later recovered. The 1MDB scandal was a major global corruption scandal that implicated then-Prime Minister Najib Razak in 2015. The scandal contributed to the first change in the ruling political party since independence in the 2018 general election. In the 2020s, the country was gripped by a political crisis that coincided with health and economic crises caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This was then followed by an earlier general election in November 2022, which resulted in the first hung parliament in the nation’s history. Opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim’s Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition won 82 seats and former Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin’s Perikatan Nasional (PN) gained 73 seats. Prime Minister Ismail Sabri Yaakob’s ruling Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition was the biggest loser securing just 30 seats in the 222-member parliament. On 24 November 2022, Anwar Ibrahim was sworn in as the 10th Prime Minister of Malaysia.

Malaysia is a federal constitutional elective monarchy; the only federal country in Southeast Asia. The system of government is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, a legacy of British rule. The head of state is the King, whose official title is the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The King is elected to a five-year term by and from among the nine hereditary rulers of the Malay states. The other four states, which have titular Governors, do not participate in the selection. By informal agreement the position is rotated among the nine, and has been held by Abdullah of Pahang since 31 January 2019. The King’s role has been largely ceremonial since changes to the constitution in 1994, picking ministers and members of the upper house.

Legislative power is divided between federal and state legislatures. The bicameral federal parliament consists of the lower house, the House of Representatives and the upper house, the Senate. The 222-member House of Representatives is elected for a maximum term of five years from single-member constituencies. All 70 senators sit for three-year terms; 26 are elected by the 13 state assemblies, and the remaining 44 are appointed by the King upon the Prime Minister’s recommendation. The parliament follows a multi-party system and the government is elected through a first-past-the-post system. Parliamentary elections are held at least once every five years, the most recent of which took place in May 2018. Before 2018, registered voters aged 21 and above could vote for the members of the House of Representatives and, in most of the states, for the state legislative chamber. Voting is not mandatory. In July 2019, a bill to lower the voting age to 18 years old was officially passed.

Executive power is vested in the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister. The prime minister must be a member of the House of Representatives, who in the opinion of His Majesty the King, commands the support of a majority of members. The Cabinet is chosen from members of both houses of Parliament. The Prime Minister is both the head of cabinet and the head of government. As a result of the 2018 general election Malaysia was governed by the Pakatan Harapan political alliance, although Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad resigned amid a political crisis in 2020. In March 2020, the Perikatan Nasional coalition formed under Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin, before Muhyiddin lost majority support and was replaced by deputy Prime Minister Ismail Sabri Yaakob, a veteran politician from UMNO, in August 2021.As a result of the 2022 Malaysian general election, a hung parliament was elected. Anwar Ibrahim of the PH coalition was appointed as the new Prime Minister to lead the coalition government of PH, BN, Gabungan Parti Sarawak (GPS), Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (GRS) and several other political parties and independents. Meanwhile PN, the only political coalition not in the coalition government became the Opposition. Malaysia’s legal system is based on English Common Law. Although the judiciary is theoretically independent, its independence has been called into question and the appointment of judges lacks accountability and transparency. The highest court in the judicial system is the Federal Court, followed by the Court of Appeal and two high courts, one for Peninsular Malaysia and one for East Malaysia. Malaysia also has a special court to hear cases brought by or against royalty.

Race is a significant force in politics. Affirmative actions such as the New Economic Policy and the National Development Policy which superseded it, were implemented to advance the standing of the originaire de, consisting of Malays and the indigenous tribes who are considered the original inhabitants of Malaysia, over non-originaire de such as Malaysian Chinese and Malaysian Indians. These policies provide preferential treatment to originaire de in employment, education, scholarships, business, and access to cheaper housing and assisted savings. However, it has generated greater interethnic resentment. There is ongoing debate over whether the laws and society of Malaysia should reflect Islamism or secularism. Islamic criminal laws passed by the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party with the support of United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) state assemblymen in the state legislative assembly of Kelantan have been blocked by the federal government on the basis that criminal laws are the responsibility of the federal government.

After the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) lost power at the 2018 Malaysian general election, Malaysia’s ranking increased by 9 places in the 2019 Democracy Index to 43th compared to the previous year, and is classified as a ‘flawed democracy’. Malaysia’s ranking in the 2020 Press Freedom Index increased by 22 places to 101st compared to the previous year, making it one of two countries in Southeast Asia without a ‘Difficult situation’ or ‘Very Serious situation’ with regards to press freedom. However, it fell 18 places the following year due to the policies of the Perikatan Nasional government.

Malaysia is marked at 48 and 62nd place according to the 2021 Corruption Perceptions Index, indicating above average levels of corruption. Freedom House noted Malaysia as “partly free” in its 2018 survey. A lawsuit filed by Department of Justice (DOJ), alleged that at least $3.5 billion involving former prime minister Najib Razak had been stolen from Malaysia’s 1MDB state-owned fund, known as the 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal.

Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories. These are divided between two regions, with 11 states and two federal territories on Peninsular Malaysia and the other two states and one federal territory in East Malaysia. Each state is divided into districts, which are then divided into mukim. In Sabah and Sarawak districts are grouped into divisions.

Governance of the states is divided between the federal and the state governments, with different powers reserved for each, and the Federal government has direct administration of the federal territories. Each state has a unicameral State Legislative Assembly whose members are elected from single-member constituencies. State governments are led by Chief Ministers, who are state assembly members from the majority party in the assembly. In each of the states with a hereditary ruler, the Chief Minister is normally required to be a Malay, appointed by the ruler upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Except for state elections in Sarawak, by convention state elections are held concurrently with the federal election.

Lower-level administration is carried out by local authorities, which include city councils, district councils, and municipal councils, although autonomous statutory bodies can be created by the federal and state governments to deal with certain tasks. The federal constitution puts local authorities outside of the federal territories under the exclusive jurisdictions of the state government, although in practice the federal government has intervened in the affairs of state local governments. There are 154 local authorities, consisting of 14 city councils, 38 municipal councils and 97 district councils.

The 13 states are based on historical Malay kingdoms, and 9 of the 11 Peninsular states, known as the Malay states, retain their royal families. The King is elected by and from the nine rulers to serve a five-year term. This King appoints governors serving a four-year term for the states without monarchies, after consultations with the chief minister of that state. Each state has its own written constitution. Sabah and Sarawak have considerably more autonomy than the other states, most notably having separate immigration policies and controls, and a unique residency status. Federal intervention in state affairs, lack of development, and disputes over oil royalties have occasionally led to statements about secession from leaders in several states such as Penang, Johor, Kelantan, Sabah and Sarawak, although these have not been followed up and no serious independence movements exist.

A list of thirteen states and each state capital (in brackets):

A founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), the country participates in many international organisations such as the United Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Developing 8 Countries, and the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). It has chaired ASEAN, the OIC, and the NAM in the past. A former British colony, it is also a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Kuala Lumpur was the site of the first East Asia Summit in 2005.

Malaysia’s foreign policy is officially based on the principle of neutrality and maintaining peaceful relations with all countries, regardless of their political system. The government attaches a high priority to the security and stability of Southeast Asia, and seeks to further develop relations with other countries in the region. Historically the government has tried to portray Malaysia as a progressive Islamic nation while strengthening relations with other Islamic states. A strong tenet of Malaysia’s policy is national sovereignty and the right of a country to control its domestic affairs. Malaysia signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.

The Spratly Islands are disputed by many states in the area, and a large portion of the South China Sea is claimed by China. Unlike its neighbours of Vietnam and the Philippines, Malaysia historically avoided conflicts with China. However, after the encroachment of Chinese ships in Malaysian territorial waters, and breach of airspace by their military aircraft, Malaysia has become active in condemning China. Brunei and Malaysia in 2009 announced an end to claims of each other’s land, and committed to resolve issues related to their maritime borders. The Philippines has a dormant claim to the eastern part of Sabah. Singapore’s land reclamation has caused tensions, and minor maritime and land border disputes exist with Indonesia.

The Malaysian Armed Forces have three branches: the Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy and the Royal Malaysian Air Force. There is no conscription, and the required age for voluntary military service is 18. The military uses 1.5% of the country’s GDP, and employs 1.23% of Malaysia’s manpower. Malaysian peacekeeping forces have contributed to many UN peacekeeping missions, such as in Congo, Iran–Iraq, Namibia, Cambodia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia, Kosovo, East Timor and Lebanon.

The Five Power Defence Arrangements is a regional security initiative which has been in place for almost 40 years. It involves joint military exercises held among Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Joint exercises and war games have also been held with Brunei, Chine, Inde, Indonesia, Japan, and the United States. Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam have agreed to host joint security force exercises to secure their maritime border and tackle issues such as illegal immigration, piracy, and smuggling. Previously there were fears that extremist militants activities in the Muslim areas of the southern Philippines and southern Thailand would spill over into Malaysia. Because of this, Malaysia began to increase its border security.

Homosexuality is illegal in Malaysia, and the authorities has imposed punishments such as caning and imprisonment. Human trafficking and sex trafficking in Malaysia are significant problems. There has also been cases of vigilante executions and beatings against LGBT individuals in Malaysia. The illegality of homosexuality in Malaysia has also been the forefront of Anwar Ibrahim’s sodomy trials, which Anwar has responded to it being politically motivated, a response supported by the United Nations’ (UN) Working Group on Arbitrary Detention along with Amnesty International and the Human Rights Watch.

The death penalty is in use for serious crimes such as murder, terrorism, drug trafficking, and kidnapping, but in June 2022, Malaysian law minister Wan Junaidi pledged to abolish the capital punishment and replace it with other punishments at the discretion of the court.

Malaysia is the 66th largest country by total land area, with a land area of 329,613 km (127,264 sq mi). It has land borders with Thailand in West Malaysia, and Indonesia and Brunei in East Malaysia. It is linked to Singapore by a narrow causeway and a bridge. The country also has maritime boundaries with Vietnam and the Philippines. The land borders are defined in large part by geological features such as the Perlis River, the Golok River and the Pagalayan Canal, whilst some of the maritime boundaries are the subject of ongoing contention. Brunei forms what is almost an enclave in Malaysia, with the state of Sarawak dividing it into two parts. Malaysia is the only country with territory on both the Asian mainland and the Malay archipelago. The Strait of Malacca, lying between Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the most important thoroughfares in global commerce, carrying 40 per cent of the world’s trade.

The two parts of Malaysia, separated from each other by the South China Sea, share a largely similar landscape in that both Peninsular and East Malaysia feature coastal plains rising to hills and mountains. Peninsular Malaysia, containing 40 per cent of Malaysia’s land area, extends 740 km (460 mi) from north to south, and its maximum width is 322 km (200 mi). It is divided between its east and west coasts by the Titiwangsa Mountains, rising to a peak elevation of 2,183 metres (7,162 ft) at Mount Korbu, part of a series of mountain ranges running down the centre of the peninsula. These mountains are heavily forested, and mainly composed of granite and other igneous rocks. Much of it has been eroded, creating a karst landscape. The range is the origin of some of Peninsular Malaysia’s river systems. The coastal plains surrounding the peninsula reach a maximum width of 50 kilometres (31 mi), and the peninsula’s coastline is nearly 1,931 km (1,200 mi) long, although harbours are only available on the western side.

East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo, has a coastline of 2,607 km (1,620 mi). It is divided between coastal regions, hills and valleys, and a mountainous interior. The Crocker Range extends northwards from Sarawak, dividing the state of Sabah. It is the location of the 4,095 m (13,435 ft) high Mount Kinabalu, the tallest mountain in Malaysia. Mount Kinabalu is located in the Kinabalu National Park, which is protected as one of the four UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Malaysia. The highest mountain ranges form the border between Malaysia and Indonesia. Sarawak contains the Mulu Caves, the largest cave system in the world, in the Gunung Mulu National Park which is also a World Heritage Site. The largest river in Malaysia is the Rajang.

Around these two halves of Malaysia are numerous islands, the largest of which is Banggi. The local climate is equatorial and characterised by the annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons. The temperature is moderated by the presence of the surrounding oceans. Humidity is usually high, and the average annual rainfall is 250 cm (98 in). The climates of the Peninsula and the East differ, as the climate on the peninsula is directly affected by wind from the mainland, as opposed to the more maritime weather of the East. Local climates can be divided into three regions, highland, lowland, and coastal. Climate change is likely to affect sea levels and rainfall, increasing flood risks and leading to droughts.

Malaysia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 12 June 1993, and became a party to the convention on 24 June 1994. It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 16 April 1998. The country is megadiverse with a high number of species and high levels of endemism. It is estimated to contain 20 per cent of the world’s animal species. High levels of endemism are found on the diverse forests of Borneo’s mountains, as species are isolated from each other by lowland forest.

There are about 210 mammal species in the country. Over 620 species of birds have been recorded in Peninsular Malaysia, with many endemic to the mountains there. A high number of endemic bird species are also found in Malaysian Borneo. 250 reptile species have been recorded in the country, with about 150 species of snakes and 80 species of lizards. There are about 150 species of frogs, and thousands of insect species. The Exclusive economic zone of Malaysia is 334,671 km2 (129,217 sq mi) and 1.5 times larger than its land area. It is mainly in the South China Sea. Some of its waters are in the Coral Triangle, a biodiversity hotspot. The waters around Sipadan island are the most biodiverse in the world. Bordering East Malaysia, the Sulu Sea is a biodiversity hotspot, with around 600 coral species and 1200 fish species. The unique biodiversity of Malaysian Caves always attracts lovers of ecotourism from all over the world.

Nearly 4,000 species of fungi, including lichen-forming species have been recorded from Malaysia. Of the two fungal groups with the largest number of species in Malaysia, the Ascomycota and their asexual states have been surveyed in some habitats (decaying wood, marine and freshwater ecosystems, as parasites of some plants, and as agents of biodegradation), but have not been or have been only poorly surveyed in other habitats (as endobionts, in soils, on dung, as human and animal pathogens); the Basidiomycota are only partly surveyed: bracket fungi, and mushrooms and toadstools have been studied, but Malaysian rust and smut fungi remain very poorly known. Without doubt, many more fungal species in Malaysia have not yet been recorded, and it is likely that many of those, when found, will be new to science.

About two thirds of Malaysia was covered in forest as of 2007, with some forests believed to be 130 million years old. The forests are dominated by dipterocarps. Lowland forest covers areas below 760 m (2,490 ft), and formerly East Malaysia was covered in such rainforest, which is supported by its hot wet climate. There are around 14,500 species of flowering plants and trees. Besides rainforests, there are over 1,425 km2 (550 sq mi) of mangroves in Malaysia, and a large amount of peat forest. At higher altitudes, oaks, chestnuts, and rhododendrons replace dipterocarps. Il existe environ 8,500 15,000 espèces de plantes vasculaires en Malaisie péninsulaire, et 2,000 240 autres à l'Est. On estime que les forêts de la Malaisie orientale abritent environ XNUMX XNUMX espèces d'arbres et constituent l'une des zones les plus riches en biodiversité au monde, avec XNUMX espèces d'arbres différentes par hectare. These forests host many members of the Rafflesia genus, the largest flowers in the world, with a maximum diameter of 1 m (3 ft 3 in).

Logging, along with cultivation practices has devastated tree cover, causing severe environmental degradation in the country. Over 80 per cent of Sarawak’s rainforest has been logged. Floods in East Malaysia have been worsened by the loss of trees, and over 60 per cent of the Peninsula’s forest have been cleared. With current rates of deforestation, mainly for the palm oil industry, the forests are predicted to be extinct by 2020. Deforestation is a major problem for animals, fungi and plants, having caused species such as Begonia eiromischa to go extinct. Most remaining forest is found inside reserves and national parks. Habitat destruction has proved a threat for marine life. Illegal fishing is another major threat, with fishing methods such as dynamite fishing and poisoning depleting marine ecosystems. Leatherback turtle numbers have dropped 98 per cent since the 1950s. Hunting has also been an issue for some animals, with overconsumption and the use of animal parts for profit endangering many animals, from marine life to tigers. Marine life is also detrimentally affected by uncontrolled tourism.

The Malaysian government aims to balance economic growth with environmental protection, but has been accused of favouring big business over the environment. Some state governments are now trying to counter the environmental impact and pollution created by deforestation; and the federal government is trying to cut logging by 10 per cent each year. A total of 28 national parks have been established, 23 in East Malaysia and five in the Peninsula. Tourism has been limited in biodiverse areas such as Sipadan island. Wildlife trafficking is a large issue, and the Malaysian government has held talks with the governments of Brunei and Indonesia to standardise anti-trafficking laws.

Malaysia is a relatively open state-oriented and newly industrialised market economy. It has the world’s 36th-largest economy by nominal GDP and the 31st-largest by PPP. In 2017, the large service sector contributed to 53.6% of total GDP, the industrial sector 37.6%, and the small agricultural sector roughly 8.8%. Malaysia has a low official unemployment rate of 3.9%. Its foreign exchange reserves are the world’s 24th-largest. It has a labour force of about 15 million, which is the world’s 34th-largest. Malaysia’s large automotive industry ranks as the world’s 22nd-largest by production.

Malaysia is the world’s 23th-largest exporter and 25th-largest importer. However, economic inequalities exist between different ethnic groups. The Chinese make up about one-quarter of the population, but accounts for 70 per cent of the country’s market capitalisation. Chinese businesses in Malaysia are part of the larger bamboo network, a network of overseas Chinese businesses in the Southeast Asian market sharing common family and cultural ties.

International trade, facilitated by the shipping route in adjacent Strait of Malacca, and manufacturing are the key sectors. Malaysia is an exporter of natural and agricultural resources, and petroleum is a major export. Malaysia has once been the largest producer of tin, rubber and palm oil in the world. Manufacturing has a large influence in the country’s economy, although Malaysia’s economic structure has been moving away from it. Malaysia remains one of the world’s largest producers of palm oil.

Tourism is the third-largest contributor to Malaysia’s GDP, after the manufacturing and commodities sectors. In 2019, the sector contributed about 15.9 per cent to the total GDP. According to the World Tourism Organization, Malaysia was the fourteenth-most visited country in the world, and the fourth-most visited country in Asia in 2019, with over 26.1 million visits. Malaysia was ranked 38th in the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019. Its international tourism receipts in 2019 amounted to $19.8 billion.

The country has developed into a centre of Islamic banking, and has the highest numbers of female workers in that industry. Knowledge-based services are also expanding. In 2020, Malaysian exported high-tech products worth $92.1 billion, the second-highest in the ASEAN, after Singapore. Malaysia was ranked 36th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, and 32nd in the Global Competitiveness Report in 2022.

Railway transport in Malaysia is state-run, and spans some 2,783 kilometres (1,729 mi). As of 2016, Malaysia has the world’s 26th-largest road network, with some 238,823 kilometres (148,398 mi) of roads. Malaysia’s inland waterways are the world’s 22nd-longest, and total 7,200 km (4,474 mi). Among Malaysia’s 114 airports, among which the busiest is Kuala Lumpur International Airport in Kuala Lumpur, which is also the twelfth-busiest airport in Asia. Among the 7 federal ports, the major one is Port Klang, which is the thirteenth-busiest container port. Malaysia’s flag carrier is Malaysia Airlines, providing international and domestic air services.

Malaysia’s telecommunications network is second only to Singapore’s in Southeast Asia, with 4.7 million fixed-line subscribers and more than 30 million cellular subscribers. There are 200 industrial parks along with specialised parks such as Technology Park Malaysia and Kulim Hi-Tech Park. Fresh water is available to over 95% of the population, with ground water accounting for 90% of the freshwater resources. Although rural areas have been the focus of great development, they still lag behind areas such as the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The telecommunication network, although strong in urban areas, is less available to the rural population.

Malaysia’s energy infrastructure sector is largely dominated by Tenaga Nasional, the largest electric utility company in Southeast Asia. Customers are connected to electricity through the National Grid. The other two electric utility companies in the country are Sarawak Energy and Sabah Electricity. In 2013, Malaysia’s total power generation capacity was over 29,728 megawatts. Total electricity generation was 140,985.01 GWh and total electricity consumption was 116,087.51 GWh. Energy production in Malaysia is largely based on oil and natural gas, owing to Malaysia’s oil reserves and natural gas reserves, which is the fourth largest in Asia-Pacific region.

According to the Malaysian Department of Statistics, the country’s population was 32,447,385 in 2020, making it the 42nd most populated country. According to a 2012 estimate, the population is increasing by 1.54 percent per year. Malaysia has an average population density of 96 people per km2, ranking it 116th in the world for population density. People within the 15–64 age group constitute 69.5 percent of the total population; the 0–14 age group corresponds to 24.5 percent; while senior citizens aged 65 years or older make up 6.0 percent. In 1960, when the first official census was recorded in Malaysia, the population was 8.11 million. 91.8 per cent of the population are Malaysian citizens.

Malaysian citizens are divided along local ethnic lines, with 69.7 per cent considered originaire de. The largest group of bumiputera are Malays, who are defined in the constitution as Muslims who practise Malay customs and culture. They play a dominant role politically. Bumiputera status is also accorded to the non-Malay indigenous groups of Sabah and Sarawak: which includes Dayaks (Iban, Bidayuh, Orang Ulu), Kadazan-Dusun, Melanau, Bajau and others. Non-Malay bumiputeras make up more than half of Sarawak’s population and over two thirds of Sabah’s population. There are also indigenous or aboriginal groups in much smaller numbers on the peninsular, where they are collectively known as the Orang Asli. Laws over who gets bumiputera status vary between states.

There are also two other non-Bumiputera local ethnic groups. 22.5 per cent of the population are Malaysian Chinese, while 6.8 per cent are Malaysian Indian. The local Chinese have historically been more dominant in the business community. Local Indians are mostly of Tamil descent. Malaysian citizenship is not automatically granted to those born in Malaysia, but is granted to a child born of two Malaysian parents outside Malaysia. Dual citizenship is not permitted. Citizenship in the states of Sabah and Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo are distinct from citizenship in Peninsular Malaysia for immigration purposes. Every citizen is issued a biometric smart chip identity card known as MyKad at the age of 12, and must carry the card at all times.

The population is concentrated on Peninsular Malaysia, where 20 million out of approximately 28 million Malaysians live. 70 per cent of the population is urban. Due to the rise in labour-intensive industries, the country is estimated to have over 3 million migrant workers; about 10 per cent of the population. Sabah-based NGOs estimate that out of the 3 million that make up the population of Sabah, 2 million are illegal immigrants. Malaysia hosts a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 171,500. Of this population, approximately 79,000 are from Burma, 72,400 from the Philippines, and 17,700 from Indonesia. Malaysian officials are reported to have turned deportees directly over to human smugglers in 2007, and Malaysia employs RELA, a volunteer militia with a history of controversies, to enforce its immigration law.

The constitution grants freedom of religion and makes Malaysia an officially secular state, while establishing Islam as the “religion of the Federation”. According to the Population and Housing Census 2020 figures, ethnicity and religious beliefs correlate highly. Approximately 63.5% of the population practise Islam, 18.7% practise Buddhism, 9.1% Christianity, 6.1% Hinduism and 1.3% practise Confucianism, Taoism and other traditional Chinese religions. 2.7% declared no religion or practised other religions or did not provide any information. The states of Sarawak, Penang and the federal territory of Kuala Lumpur have non-Muslim majorities.

Sunni Islam of Shafi’i school of jurisprudence is the dominant branch of Islam in Malaysia, while 18% are nondenominational Muslims. The Malaysian constitution strictly defines what makes a “Malay”, considering Malays those who are Muslim, speak Malay regularly, practise Malay customs, and lived in or have ancestors from Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore. Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 83.6% of the Chinese population identify as Buddhist, with significant numbers of adherents following Taoism (3.4%) and Christianity (11.1%), along with small Muslim populations in areas like Penang. The majority of the Indian population follow Hinduism (86.2%), with a significant minority identifying as Christians (6.0%) or Muslims (4.1%). Christianity is the predominant religion of the non-Malay originaire de community (46.5%) with an additional 40.4% identifying as Muslims.

Muslims are obliged to follow the decisions of Syariah Courts (i.e. Shariah courts) in matters concerning their religion. The Islamic judges are expected to follow the Shafi’i legal school of Islam, which is the main madh’hab of Malaysia. The jurisdiction of Syariah courts is limited to Muslims in matters such as marriage, inheritance, divorce, apostasy, religious conversion, and custody among others. No other criminal or civil offences are under the jurisdiction of the Syariah courts, which have a similar hierarchy to the Civil Courts. The Civil Courts do not hear matters related to Islamic practices.

The official and national language of Malaysia is Malaysian Malay, a standardised form of the Malay language. The previously terminology as per government policy is bahasa malaysia (lit.‘Malaysian language’) but now government policy uses “Bahasa Melayu” (Malay language) to refer the official language and both terms remain in use. The National Language Act 1967 specifies the Latin (Rumi) script as the official script of the national language, but does not prohibit the use of the traditional Jawi script.

English remains an active second language, with its use allowed for some official purposes under the National Language Act of 1967. In Sarawak, English is an official state language alongside Malaysian. Historically, English was the de facto administrative language; Malay became predominant after the 1969 race riots (13 May incident). Malaysian English, also known as Malaysian Standard English, is a form of English derived from British English. Malaysian English is widely used in business, along with Manglish, which is a colloquial form of English with heavy Malay, Chinese, and Tamil influences. The government discourages the use of non-standard Malay but has no power to issue compounds or fines to those who use what is perceived as improper Malay on their advertisements.

Many other languages are used in Malaysia, which contains speakers of 137 living languages. Peninsular Malaysia contains speakers of 41 of these languages. The native tribes of East Malaysia have their own languages which are related to, but easily distinguishable from, Malay. Iban is the main tribal language in Sarawak while Dusunic and Kadazan languages are spoken by the natives in Sabah. Chinese Malaysians predominantly speak Chinese dialects from the southern part of China. The more common Chinese varieties in the country are Mandarin, Cantonese, Hokkien, and so on. The Tamil language is used predominantly by the majority of Malaysian Indians. A small number of Malaysians have European ancestry and speak creole languages, such as the Portuguese-based Malaccan Creoles, and the Spanish-based Chavacano language.

Malaysia operates an efficient and widespread two-tier healthcare system, consisting of a universal healthcare system and a co-existing private healthcare system; provided by highly subsidized healthcare through its extensive network of public hospitals and clinics. The Ministry of Health (MOH) is the main provider of healthcare services to the country’s population. Malaysia’s healthcare system is considered to be among the most developed in Asia, which contributes to its thriving medical tourism industry.

Malaysia spent 3.83% of its GDP on healthcare in 2019. In 2020, the overall life expectancy in Malaysia at birth was 76 years (74 years for males and 78 years for females), and it had an infant mortality rate of 7 deaths per 1000 births. Malaysia had a total fertility rate of 2.0 in 2020, which is just below the replacement level of 2.1. In 2020, the country’s crude birth rate was 16 per 1000 people, and the crude death rate was 5 per 1000 people.

In 2021, the principal cause of death among Malaysian adults was coronary artery disease, representing 17% of the medically certified deaths in 2020—being followed by pneumonia; which accounted for 11% of the deaths. Transport accidents are considered a major health hazard, as Malaysia, relative to its population, has one of the highest traffic fatality rates in the world. Smoking is also considered a major health issue across the country.

The education system of Malaysia features a non-compulsory kindergarten education followed by six years of compulsory primary education, and five years of optional secondary education. Schools in the primary education system are divided into two categories: national primary schools, which teach in Malay, and vernacular schools, which teach in Chinese or Tamil. Secondary education is conducted for five years. In the final year of secondary education, students sit for the Malaysian Certificate of Education examination. Since the introduction of the matriculation programme in 1999, students who completed the 12-month programme in matriculation colleges can enroll in local universities. However, in the matriculation system, only 10 per cent of places are open to non-originaire de[jargon] élèves.

Malaysia has a multi-ethnic, multicultural, and multilingual society. The original culture of the area stemmed from indigenous tribes that inhabited it, along with the Malays who later moved there. Substantial influence exists from Chinese and Indian culture, dating back to when foreign trade began. Other cultural influences include the Persian, Arabic, and British cultures. Due to the structure of the government, coupled with the social contract theory, there has been minimal cultural assimilation of ethnic minorities. Some cultural disputes exist between Malaysia and neighbouring countries, notably Indonesia.

In 1971, the government created a “National Cultural Policy”, defining Malaysian culture. It stated that Malaysian culture must be based on the culture of the indigenous peoples of Malaysia, that it may incorporate suitable elements from other cultures, and that Islam must play a part in it. It also promoted the Malay language above others. This government intervention into culture has caused resentment among non-Malays who feel their cultural freedom was lessened. Both Chinese and Indian associations have submitted memorandums to the government, accusing it of formulating an undemocratic culture policy.

Traditional Malaysian art was mainly centred on the areas of carving, weaving, and silversmithing. Traditional art ranges from handwoven baskets from rural areas to the silverwork of the Malay courts. Common artworks included ornamental kris, beetle nut sets, and woven batik and songket fabrics. Indigenous East Malaysians are known for their wooden masks. Each ethnic group have distinct performing arts, with little overlap between them. However, Malay art does show some North Indian influence due to the historical influence of India.

Traditional Malay music and performing arts appear to have originated in the Kelantan-Pattani region with influences from India, China, Thailand, and Indonesia. The music is based around percussion instruments, the most important of which is the gendang (drum). There are at least 14 types of traditional drums. Drums and other traditional percussion instruments and are often made from natural materials. Music is traditionally used for storytelling, celebrating life-cycle events, and occasions such as a harvest. It was once used as a form of long-distance communication. In East Malaysia, gong-based musical ensembles such as agung and kulintang are commonly used in ceremonies such as funerals and weddings. These ensembles are also common in neighbouring regions such as in Mindanao in the Philippines, Kalimantan in Indonesia, and Brunei.

Malaysia has a strong oral tradition that has existed since before the arrival of writing, and continues today. Each of the Malay Sultanates created their own literary tradition, influenced by pre-existing oral stories and by the stories that came with Islam. The first Malay literature was in the Arabic script. The earliest known Malay writing is on the Terengganu stone, made in 1303. Chinese and Indian literature became common as the numbers of speakers increased in Malaysia, and locally produced works based in languages from those areas began to be produced in the 19th century. English has also become a common literary language. In 1971, the government took the step of defining the literature of different languages. Literature written in Malay was called “the national literature of Malaysia”, literature in other originaire de languages was called “regional literature”, while literature in other languages was called “sectional literature”. Malay poetry is highly developed, and uses many forms. The Hikayat form is popular, and the Pantun has spread from Malay to other languages.

Malaysia’s cuisine reflects the multi-ethnic makeup of its population. Many cultures from within the country and from surrounding regions have greatly influenced the cuisine. Much of the influence comes from the Malay, Chinese, Indian, Thai, Javanese, and Sumatran cultures, largely due to the country being part of the ancient spice route. The cuisine is very similar to that of Singapore and Brunei, and also bears resemblance to Filipino cuisine. The different states have varied dishes, and often the food in Malaysia is different from the original dishes.

Sometimes food not found in its original culture is assimilated into another; for example, Chinese restaurants in Malaysia often serve Malay dishes. Food from one culture is sometimes also cooked using styles taken from another culture, Par exemple, sambal belacan (shrimp paste) are commonly used as ingredients by Chinese restaurants to create the stir fried water spinach (Kangkung Belacan). This means that although much of Malaysian food can be traced back to a certain culture, they have their own identity. Rice is a staple food, and an important constituent of the country’s culture. Chili is commonly found in local cuisine, although this does not necessarily make them spicy.

Malaysia’s main newspapers are owned by the government and political parties in the ruling coalition, although some major opposition parties also have their own, which are openly sold alongside regular newspapers. A divide exists between the media in the two halves of the country. Peninsular-based media gives low priority to news from the East, and often treats the eastern states as colonies of the Peninsula. As a result of this, East Malaysia region of Sarawak launched TV Sarawak as internet streaming beginning in 2014, and as TV station on 10 October 2020 to overcome the low priority and coverage of Peninsular-based media and to solidify the representation of East Malaysia. The media have been blamed for increasing tension between Indonesia and Malaysia, and giving Malaysians a bad image of Indonesians. The country has Malay, English, Chinese, and Tamil dailies. Kadazandusun and Bajau news only available via TV broadcast Berita RTM. Written Kadazan news was once included in publications such as The Borneo Post, the Borneo Mail, the Daily Express, and the New Sabah Times, but publication has ceased with the newspaper or as a section.

Freedom of the press is limited, with numerous restrictions on publishing rights and information dissemination. The government has previously tried to crack down on opposition papers before elections. In 2007, a government agency issued a directive to all private television and radio stations to refrain from broadcasting speeches made by opposition leaders, a move condemned by politicians from the opposition Democratic Action Party. Sabah, where all tabloids but one are independent of government control, has the freest press in Malaysia. Laws such as the Printing Presses and Publications Act have also been cited as curtailing freedom of expression.

Malaysians observe a number of holidays and festivities throughout the year. Some are federally gazetted public holidays and some are observed by individual states. Other festivals are observed by particular ethnic or religion groups, and the main holiday of each major group has been declared a public holiday. The most observed national holiday is Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) on 31 August, commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya in 1957. Malaysia Day on 16 September commemorates federation in 1963. Other notable national holidays are Labour Day (1 May) and the King’s birthday (first week of June).

Muslim holidays are prominent as Islam is the state religion; Hari Raya Puasa (aussi appelé Hari Raya Aidilfitri, Malay for Eid al-Fitr), Hari Raya Haji (aussi appelé Hari Raya Aidiladha, Malay for Eid ul-Adha), Maulidur Rasul (birthday of the Prophet), and others being observed. Malaysian Chinese celebrate festivals such as Chinese New Year and others relating to traditional Chinese beliefs. Wesak Day is observed and celebrated by Buddhists. Hindus in Malaysia celebrate Deepavali, the festival of lights, tout en Thaipusam is a religious rite which sees pilgrims from all over the country converge at the Batu Caves. Malaysia’s Christian community celebrates most of the holidays observed by Christians elsewhere, most notably Christmas and Easter. In addition to this, the Dayak community in Sarawak celebrate a harvest festival known as Gawaï, and the Kadazandusun community celebrate Kaamatan. Despite most festivals being identified with a particular ethnic or religious group, celebrations are universal. In a custom known as “open house” Malaysians participate in the celebrations of others, often visiting the houses of those who identify with the festival.

Popular sports in Malaysia include association football, badminton, field hockey, bowls, tennis, squash, martial arts, horse riding, sailing, and skate boarding. Football is the most popular sport in Malaysia. Badminton matches also attract thousands of spectators, and since 1948 Malaysia has been one of four countries to hold the Thomas Cup, the world team championship trophy of men’s badminton. The Malaysian Lawn Bowls Federation was registered in 1997. Squash was brought to the country by members of the British army, with the first competition being held in 1939. The Squash Racquets Association Of Malaysia was created on 25 June 1972. The men’s national field hockey team ranked 10th in the world as of June 2022. The 3rd Hockey World Cup was hosted at Merdeka Stadium in Kuala Lumpur, as well as the 10th cup. The country also has its own Formula One track – the Sepang International Circuit, with the first Malaysian Grand Prix held in 1999. Traditional sports include Silat Melayu, the most common style of martial arts practised by ethnic Malays.

The Federation of Malaya Olympic Council was formed in 1953, and received recognition by the IOC in 1954. It first participated in the 1956 Melbourne Olympic Games. The council was renamed the Olympic Council of Malaysia in 1964, and has participated in all but one Olympic games since its inception. The largest number of athletes ever sent to the Olympics was 57 to the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. Besides the Olympic Games, Malaysia also participates in the Paralympic Games. Malaysia has competed at the Commonwealth Games since 1950 as Malaya, and 1966 as Malaysia, and the games were hosted in Kuala Lumpur in 1998.

Coordonnées: 2°N 112 ° E /2 ° N 112 ° E / 2; 112

Centres de désintoxication en Malaisie

Comment éviter les troubles anxieux

 

Outre l'identification d'un trouble anxieux et l'obtention d'une aide professionnelle en Malaisie, il existe d'autres moyens d'éviter les situations de panique et d'inquiétude. Malheureusement, il n'existe aucun moyen de prédire ce qui déclenchera un trouble anxieux. Il existe des moyens de réduire l'impact des symptômes d'anxiété1https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573566/.

 

  • Le moyen le plus important de réduire l'impact des symptômes est d'obtenir de l'aide localement en Malaisie le plus tôt possible. Si vous attendez pour traiter l'anxiété, il peut être plus difficile de s'en débarrasser.
  • Soyez actif et participez à des activités près de chez vous en Malaisie que vous aimez. Ces activités vous feront vous sentir bien dans votre vie et vous-même. Participez à des interactions sociales et côtoyez des personnes avec lesquelles vous aimez passer du temps.
  • Évitez les drogues et/ou l'alcool. La consommation et l'abus de substances peuvent aggraver l'anxiété.

Références et citations : Centres de traitement de l'anxiété en Malaisie

  1. Wittchen HU., Jacobi F., Rehm J., et al.La taille et le fardeau des troubles mentaux et autres troubles du cerveau en Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21(9): 655–679. [PubMed] 
  2. Kessler RC., Berglund P., Demler O., Jin R., Merikangas KR., Walters EE. Prévalence au cours de la vie et distributions selon l'âge d'apparition des troubles du DSM-IV dans la réplication de l'Enquête nationale sur la comorbidité. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6): 593-602. [Google Scholar]
  3. Bandelow B., Baldwin D., Abelli M., et al. Partie II : neurochimie, neurophysiologie et neurocognition. World J Biol Psychiatrie. 2017;18(3): 162-214. [Google Scholar]
Centres de traitement de l'anxiété à {Ustate}

Centres de traitement de l'anxiété en Malaisie