Amiloride and Weed

{Fulldrug} and Weed

Authored by Pin Ng PhD

Edited by Hugh Soames

Advertising: We may earn a commission if you buy anything via our advertising or external links

Amiloride and Weed


Most people who consume marijuana do so for its mood-altering and relaxing abilities. Weed gives people a high and allows them to relax. However, heavy consumption of weed can cause unwanted results. It can increase the anxiety and depression a person experiences, and it can interact with certain other drugs including Amiloride. It is important to remember that interactions do occur with all types of drugs, to a great or lesser extent and this article details the interactions of mixing Amiloride and Weed.


Mixing Amiloride and Weed


Amiloride, sold under the trade name Midamor among others, is a medication typically used with other medications to treat high blood pressure or swelling due to heart failure or cirrhosis of the liver. Amiloride is classified as a potassium-sparing diuretic. Amiloride is often used together with another diuretic, such as a thiazide or loop diuretic. It is taken by mouth. Onset of action is about two hours and it lasts for about a day.

Common side effects include high blood potassium, vomiting, loss of appetite, rash, and headache. The risk of high blood potassium is greater in those with kidney problems, diabetes, and those who are older. Amiloride blocks the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the late distal tubule, connecting tubule, and collecting duct of the nephron, which both reduces absorption of sodium ion from the lumen of the nephron and reduces excretion of potassium ion into the lumen.

Amiloride was developed in 1967. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines.

Amiloride may be used in combination with a thiazide diuretic for treatment of high blood pressure or (less commonly) in combination with a loop diuretic for treatment of heart failure. The potassium-sparing effects of amiloride offset the low blood potassium (hypokalemia) that is often induced by thiazides or loop diuretics, which is of particular importance in people for whom maintaining a normal level of potassium is critically important. For example, people that are taking Digitalis (i.e. digoxin) are at higher risk for changes in heart rhythm if their potassium levels get too high. The 2017 clinical practice guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines list amiloride as a “secondary” oral antihypertensive, with minimal efficacy. For people with resistant hypertension, already taking a thiazide diuretic, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-i) or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), and a calcium channel blocker, the addition of amiloride (or spironolactone) was better at reducing blood pressure than adding a beta-blocker (bisoprolol) or an alpha-1 blocker (doxazosin). When combined with hydrochlorothiazide, the addition of amiloride had positive effects on blood pressure and blood sugar tolerance. Amiloride may therefore be useful for preventing the metabolic side effects of thiazide diuretics, allowing for the use of higher thiazide doses (in line with how they were originally studied).

Amiloride is the treatment of choice for Liddle phenotype, which is characterized by high blood pressure, low blood potassium, and metabolic alkalosis in conjunction with a low plasma renin activity and a low aldosterone. Some people with the Liddle phenotype have Liddle syndrome, which involves a genetic mutation resulting in upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), located in the apical membrane of polarized epithelial cells in the late distal tubule and collecting duct of the kidney. Because Liddle phenotype usually involves an upregulation of ENaC channels, leading to retention of sodium and water and to hypokalemia, amiloride is useful as an ENaC channel inhibitor due to its promotion of sodium excretion and its potassium-sparing effects, restoring potassium to normal levels.

Amiloride can be used as a monotherapy (single-drug therapy) or an adjunctive therapy alongside other diuretics (e.g. hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide) for the treatment of ascites and edema (swelling) due to cirrhosis of the liver. The 2012 clinical practice guidelines by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) states that amiloride can be used to treat ascites in place of spironolactone if it isn’t tolerated (e.g. due to the side effect of gynecomastia), though amiloride isn’t a preferred drug due to cost and lack of efficacy.

People with diabetes are at higher risk for kidney problems, which increases their risk for hyperkalemia (high blood potassium). The use of amiloride in people with diabetes requires careful potassium and kidney function monitoring to prevent toxicity. Amiloride must be discontinued for at least 3 days prior to glucose tolerance testing, due to the risk for fatal hyperkalemia.

People with poor kidney function (e.g. blood urea nitrogen >30 mg/dL, or serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dL) are at high risk for hyperkalemia.

There is no data on the use of amiloride in women that are breastfeeding. While diuretics can make lactation difficult, it is unlikely that amiloride would induce this effect in the absence of other diuretics.

Data from the use of amiloride in animals suggests that it does not pose a risk to the developing fetus. However, when used in combination with the drug acetazolamide during the process of organ formation, amiloride increases the risk for kidney and ureter abnormalities. Limited human data from use during pregnancy suggests an association with a specific congenital penis abnormality if taken during the first trimester, as well as a risk for mild intrauterine growth restriction if taken throughout pregnancy.

Amiloride is contraindicated in people with kidney problems (e.g. anuria, acute or chronic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy), elevated blood potassium (≥5.5 mEq/L), or people that are hypersensitive to amiloride or any ingredients within the specific formulation. Use is also contraindicated in people that are already taking potassium-sparing drugs (e.g. spironolactone and triamterene) or whom are taking potassium supplements (e.g. potassium chloride) in most circumstances.

Amiloride is generally well tolerated. Common adverse effects to the use of amiloride include elevated blood potassium, mild skin rashes, headaches, and gastrointestinal side effects (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, decreased appetite, flatulence, and abdominal pain). Mild symptoms of high blood potassium concentrations include unusual skin sensations, muscle weakness, or fatigue, but more severe symptoms such as flaccid paralysis of the limbs, slow heart rate, and even shock can occur.

There exists no overdose data on amiloride in humans, though it is expected than an overdose would produce effects consistent with its therapeutic effects; e.g. dehydration due to over-diuresis, and electrolyte disturbances related to hyperkalemia. It is unknown if amiloride can be dialyzed off, and no specific antidote against it exists. Treatment is generally supportive, though hyperkalemia can be treated.

Amiloride may have important drug-drug interactions when combined with other medications that also increase potassium levels in the blood, leading to hyperkalemia. For example, the combination of amiloride with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors like lisinopril, or angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonists like losartan, may lead to high levels of potassium in the blood, requiring frequent monitoring.

Amiloride works by directly blocking the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) with an IC50 around 0.1 μM, indicating potent blockade. Antagonism of ENaC thereby inhibits sodium reabsorption in the late distal convoluted tubules, connecting tubules, and collecting ducts in the nephron. This promotes the loss of sodium and water from the body, and reduces potassium excretion. The drug is often used in conjunction with a thiazide diuretic to counteract with a potassium-losing effect. Due to its potassium-sparing capacities, hyperkalemia (elevated potassium concentration in the blood) can occur. The risk of developing hyperkalemia is increased in patients who are also taking ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, other potassium-sparing diuretics, or any potassium-containing supplements.

A fraction of the effects of amiloride is inhibition of cyclic GMP-gated cation channels in the inner medullary collecting duct.

Amiloride has a second action on the heart, blocking Na/H+ exchangers sodium–hydrogen antiporter 1 or NHE-1.

Amiloride also blocks the Na/H+ antiporter on the apical surface of the proximal tubule cells in the nephron, abolishing more than 80% of the action of angiotensin II on the secretion of hydrogen ions in proximal tubule cells. Note that amiloride is not an angiotensin II receptor blocker (like losartan, for example). The Na-H transporter is also found in the Jejunum of the small intestine, as a result, amiloride also blocks the reabsorption of Na, and thereby water in the intestines.

Amiloride is considered to be a reversible, pan-acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) inhibitor that prevents the transient flow of ions but not the sustained flow of ions. ASICs are members of the ENaC family of protein channels, and are found in the nervous system, the cardiovascular system, the gastrointestinal system, and the skin. Broadly, ASICs are involved in harm detection, chemosensation (pH changes specifically), and touch.

Amiloride has an oral bioavailability of 50%, meaning that about 50% of an oral dose is absorbed into the blood stream. Coadministration with food reduces the amount of amiloride that is absorbed by the body by about 30%, though it does not affect the rate of absorption. However, taking amiloride with food helps to reduce the incidence of its gastrointestinal side effects. After being taken, amiloride’s diuretic effect occurs within 2 hours, with peak diuresis within 6–10 hours. The diuretic effects of amiloride persist for about 24 hours after administration.

Amiloride cross the placenta and distributes into breast milk in vivo.

Amiloride is not metabolized by the liver. In comparison, the ENaC inhibitor triamterene is metabolized by the liver.

About 50% of amiloride is excreted unchanged by the kidneys, while around 40% is excreted in the feces (likely drug that wasn’t absorbed). The half-life of amiloride in humans is between 6 and 9 hours, which may be prolonged in people with poor kidney function.

A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the protein NEDD4L may impact how amiloride affects a person’s blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.

Amiloride is a pyrazinoylguanidine, composed of a substituted pyrazine ring structure with a carbonylguanidinium substituent. Amiloride’s pKa is 8.67, which is due to the guanidinium group. In high pH (alkaline, low hydrogen concentration) environments, the guanidinium group is deprotonated and the compound is rendered neutral, depleting its activity on sodium channels. Amiloride, as a pure substance, is highly fluorescent, with excitation wavelengths at 215, 288, and 360 nm, emitting light at 420 nm.

Amiloride was first synthesized and discovered by the Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories in the late 1960s. The drug was discovered as part of a screening process of chemicals that reversed the effects of mineralocorticoids in vivo. Amiloride was the only drug in the screen that was capable of causing the excretion of sodium (natriuresis) without a concomitant urinary excretion of potassium (kaliuresis). Thousands of amiloride analogues have been studied since its initial discovery, which have been used to study the effects of sodium transporters.

Amiloride was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on October 5, 1981.

It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines.

Amiloride is on the World Anti-Doping Agency’s list of banned substances, as it is considered a masking agent. Diuretics like amiloride act as masking agents by reducing the concentration of other doping agents due to promoting diuresis, increasing the total volume of the urine. The list includes other potassium-sparing diuretics, such as triamterene and spironolactone. In 2008, amiloride and the potassium-sparing diuretic triamterene were found in 3% of positive diuretic doping samples.

Amiloride is an inhibitor of NHE-1, which helps to maintain normal pH within cells. Cancer cells in leukemia, a type of blood cancer, have higher pH compared to normal cells. Amiloride affects the splicing and regulation of multiple genes involved in cancer, though they do not appear to be directly related to its effects on pH. Amiloride has been tested in vitro as an adjunct to the anticancer drug imatinib, which appeared to show a synergistic effect. Modified versions of amiloride, known as 5′-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride (DMA), 5-N-ethyl-N-isopropyl amiloride (EIPA), and 5-(N,N-hexamethylene)-amiloride (HMA), are being studied for the treatment of leukemia.

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder due to a mutation in the CFTR gene, which encodes for the CFTR chloride channel. There is evidence that suggests that the molecular target of amiloride, ENaC, is also implicated in cystic fibrosis due to its effects on mucus in the lungs. Aerosolized formulations of amiloride have been tested in clinical trials, though long-term clinical trials have failed to show much utility. Due to its short duration of action, it was thought that longer-acting ENaC inhibitors may prove more effective. However, longer-acting ENaC inhibitors (i.e. benzamil) have also failed clinical trials, despite an improvement in both the solubility and potency of the drugs. A third generation amiloride analogue (N-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)-N’-4-[4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)phenyl]butyl-guanidine methanesulfonate, research name “552-02”), with better pharmacokinetic properties, is being studied.

Pain induced by exposure to acid is attenuated by amiloride in human trials, which may indicate a role for amiloride in the treatment of pain in the future.


Research has found that anxiety is one of the leading symptoms created by marijuana in users, and that there is a correlation between Amiloride and Weed and an increase in anxiety.


Anyone mixing Amiloride and weed is likely to experience side effects. This happens with all medications whether weed or Amiloride is mixed with them. Side effects can be harmful when mixing Amiloride and weed. Doctors are likely to refuse a patient a Amiloride prescription if the individual is a weed smoker or user. Of course, this could be due to the lack of studies and research completed on the mixing of Amiloride and Weed.


Heavy, long-term weed use is harmful for people. It alters the brain’s functions and structure, and all pharmaceuticals and drugs including Amiloride are designed to have an impact on the brain. There is a misplaced belief that pharmaceuticals and medication work by treating only the parts of the body affected yet this is obviously not the case in terms of Amiloride. For example, simple painkiller medication does not heal the injury, it simply interrupts the brains functions to receive the pain cause by the injury. To say then that two drugs, Amiloride and Weed, dol not interact is wrong. There will always be an interaction between Amiloride and Weed in the brain11.J. D. Brown and A. G. Winterstein, Potential Adverse Drug Events and Drug–Drug Interactions with Medical and Consumer Cannabidiol (CBD) Use – PMC, PubMed Central (PMC).; Retrieved September 27, 2022, from


One of the milder side effects of mixing Amiloride and Weed is Scromiting. This condition, reportedly caused by mixing Amiloride and Weed, describes a marijuana-induced condition where the user experiences episodes of violent vomiting, which are often so severe and painful that they cause the person to scream. The medical term for Scromiting by mixing Amiloride and Weed is cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, or CHS.  For these reasons, some people choose to quit smoking weed.


It was first included in scientific reports in 2004. Since then, researchers have determined that Scromiting is the result of ongoing, long-term use of marijuana—particularly when the drug contains high levels of THC, marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Some experts believe that the receptors in the gut become overstimulated by THC, thus causing the repeated cycles of vomiting.


In the long run, a person can become even more depressed. There is a belief that marijuana is all-natural and not harmful to a person’s health. This is not true and Amiloride and weed can cause health issues the more a person consumes it.


How does Weed effect the potency of Amiloride?


The way in which the body absorbs and process Amiloride may be affected by weed. Therefore, the potency of the Amiloride may be less effective. Marijuana inhibits the metabolization of Amiloride. Not having the right potency of Amiloride means a person may either have a delay in the relief of their underlying symptoms.


A person seeking Amiloride medication that uses weed should speak to their doctor. It is important the doctor knows about a patient’s weed use, so they can prescribe the right Amiloride medication and strength. Or depending on level of interactions they may opt to prescribe a totally different medication. It is important for the doctor to know about their patient’s marijuana use. Weed is being legalized around the US, so doctors should be open to speaking about a patient’s use of it.


Sideffects of Amiloride and Weed


Many individuals may not realize that there are side effects and consequences to mixing Amiloride and Weed such as:


  • Dizziness
  • Sluggishness
  • Drowsiness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Itching
  • Hives
  • Palpitations
  • Respiratory Depression
  • Cardiac Arrest
  • Coma
  • Seizures
  • Death


Interestingly, it is impossible to tell what effect mixing this substance with Weed will have on an individual due to their own unique genetic make up and tolerance. It is never advisable to mix Amiloride and Weed due to the chances of mild, moderate and severe side effects. If you are having an adverse reaction from mixing Amiloride and Weed it’s imperative that you head to your local emergency room. Even mixing a small amount of Amiloride and Weed is not recommended.


Taking Amiloride and Weed together


People who take Amiloride and Weed together will experience the effects of both substances. Technically, the specific effects and reactions that occur due to frequent use of Amiloride and weed depend on whether you consume more weed in relation to Amiloride or more Amiloride in relation to weed.


The use of significantly more weed and Amiloride will lead to sedation and lethargy, as well as the synergistic effects resulting from a mixture of the two medications.


People who take both weed and Amiloride may experience effects such as:


  • reduced motor reflexes from Amiloride and Weed
  • dizziness from Weed and Amiloride
  • nausea and vomiting due to Amiloride and Weed


Some people may also experience more euphoria, depression, irritability or all three. A combination of weed and Amiloride leads to significantly more lethargy which can easily tip over into coma, respiratory depression seizures and death.

Mixing weed and Amiloride


The primary effect of weed is influenced by an increase in the concentration of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, which is found in the spinal cord and brain stem, and by a reduction in its effect on neuronal transmitters. When weed is combined with Amiloride this primary effect is exaggerated, increasing the strain on the body with unpredictable results.


Weed and Amiloride affects dopamine levels in the brain, causing the body both mental and physical distress. Larger amounts of Amiloride and weed have a greater adverse effect yet leading medical recommendation is that smaller does of Amiloride can be just as harmful and there is no way of knowing exactly how Amiloride and weed is going to affect an individual before they take it.


Taking Amiloride and weed together


People who take Amiloride and weed together will experience the effects of both substances. The use of significantly more Amiloride with weed will lead to sedation and lethargy, as well as the synergistic effects resulting from a mixture of the two medications.


People who take both weed and Amiloride may experience effects such as:


  • reduced motor reflexes from Amiloride and weed
  • dizziness from weed and Amiloride
  • nausea and vomiting of the Amiloride


Some people may also experience more euphoria, depression, irritability or all three. A combination of weed and Amiloride leads to significantly more lethargy which can easily tip over into coma, respiratory depression seizures and death.

Weed Vs Amiloride


Taking Amiloride in sufficient quantities increases the risk of a heart failure. Additionally, people under the influence of Amiloride and weed may have difficulty forming new memories. With weed vs Amiloride in an individual’s system they become confused and do not understand their environment. Due to the synergistic properties of Amiloride when mixed with weed it can lead to confusion, anxiety, depression and other mental disorders. Chronic use of Amiloride and weed can lead to permanent changes in the brain22.G. Lafaye, L. Karila, L. Blecha and A. Benyamina, Cannabis, cannabinoids, and health – PMC, PubMed Central (PMC).; Retrieved September 27, 2022, from


Amiloride Vs Weed


Studies investigating the effects of drugs such as Amiloride and weed have shown that the potential for parasomnia (performing tasks in sleep) is dramatically increased when Amiloride and weed are combined. Severe and dangerous side effects can occur when medications are mixed in the system, and sleep disorders are a common side effect of taking weed and Amiloride together.


When a small to medium amount of weed is combined with Amiloride, sleep disorders such as sleep apnea can occur. According to the latest data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) most ER visits and hospitalizations caused by too much weed were associated with other substances such as Amiloride.


How long after taking Amiloride can I smoke weed or take edibles?


To avoid any residual toxicity it is advisable to wait until the Amiloride has totally cleared your system before taking weed, even in small quantities.


Overdose on Amiloride and weed


In the case of Overdose on Amiloride or if you are worried after mixing Amiloride and weed, call a first responder or proceed to the nearest Emergency Room immediately.


If you are worried about someone who has taken too much Amiloride or mixed weed with Amiloride then call a first responder or take them to get immediate medical help. The best place for you or someone you care about in the case of a medical emergency is under medical supervision. Be sure to tell the medical team that there is a mix of Amiloride and weed in their system.


Excessive Weed intake and result in scromiting, chs, and anxiety disorder.  It is advisable to quit vaping weed if you are feeling these symptoms.

Mixing Amiloride and weed and antidepressants


Weed users feeling depressed and anxious may be prescribed antidepressant medication. There are some antidepressant users who also use Amiloride and weed. These individuals may not realize that there are side effects and consequences to consuming both Amiloride, marijuana and a range of antidepressants.


Studies on weed, Amiloride and antidepressants is almost nil. The reason for so little information on the side effects of the two is mostly down to marijuana being illegal in most places – although a number of states in the United States have legalized the drug.


Self-medicating with Weed and Amiloride


A lot of people suffer from depression caused by weed and Amiloride. How many? According to Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA), in any given year, it is estimated that nearly 16 million adults experience depression. Unfortunately, that number is likely to be wrong due to under reporting. Many people do not report suffering from depression because they do not want to be looked at as suffering from a mental illness. The stigmas around mental health continue and people do not want to be labeled as depressed.


Potential side effects from mixing Amiloride and weed


Quitting weed to take Amiloride


Medical professionals say an individual prescribed or taking Amiloride should not stop using weed cold turkey.  Withdrawal symptoms can be significant. Heavy pot users should especially avoid going cold turkey. The side effects of withdrawal from weed include anxiety, irritability, loss of sleep, change of appetite, and depression by quitting weed cold turkey and starting to take Amiloride.


A person beginning to use Amiloride should cut back on weed slowly. While reducing the amount of weed use, combine it with mindfulness techniques and/or yoga. Experts stress that non-medication can greatly improve a person’s mood.


Weed and Amiloride can affect a person in various ways. Different types of marijuana produce different side effects. Side effects of weed and Amiloride may include:


  • loss of motor skills
  • poor or lack of coordination
  • lowered blood pressure
  • short-term memory loss
  • increased heart rate
  • increased blood pressure
  • anxiety
  • paranoia
  • increased energy
  • increased motivation


Mixing Amiloride and weed can also produce hallucinations in users. This makes marijuana a hallucinogenic for some users. Weed creates different side effects in different people, making it a very potent drug. Now, mixing Amiloride or other mental health drugs with weed can cause even more unwanted side effects.


Mixing drugs and weed conclusion


Long-term weed use can make depression and anxiety worse. In addition, using marijuana can prevent Amiloride from working to their full potential33.J. D. Brown and A. G. Winterstein, Potential Adverse Drug Events and Drug–Drug Interactions with Medical and Consumer Cannabidiol (CBD) Use – PMC, PubMed Central (PMC).; Retrieved September 27, 2022, from Weed consumption should be reduced gradually to get the most out of prescription medication. Marijuana is a drug and it is harmful to individual’s long-term health. Weed has many side effects and the consequences are different to each person who uses it, especially when mixed with Amiloride.


If you take Amiloride, and also drink Alcohol or MDMA, you can research the effects of Amiloride and Alcohol , Amiloride and Cocaine as well as Amiloride and MDMA here.


To find the effects of other drugs and weed refer to our Weed and Other Drugs Index A to L or our Weed and Other Drugs Index M-Z.

Or you could find what you are looking for in our Alcohol and Interactions with Other Drugs index A to L or Alcohol and Interactions with Other Drugs index M to Z , Cocaine and Interactions with Other Drugs index A to L or Cocaine and Interactions with Other Drugs index M to Z or our MDMA and Interactions with Other Drugs Index A to L or MDMA and Interactions with Other Drugs Index M to Z.


Amiloride and Weed

Amiloride and Weed

Counselling for Weed Addiction; Low Cost - Qualified Therapists - Available Now - 20% Off

We may make a commission if you purchase anything via the adverts or links on this page.


Betterhelp is for anyone suffering from mental health issues. Whether you suffer from anxiety, depression, weed addiction, eating disorders, or just need someone to speak to, Betterhelp can pair you with a qualified therapist.


In the wake of the pandemic, an increasing number of people have sought out therapeutic and conseling services to help with weed cessation. Better Help has seen a massive rise in people seeking help over the last two to three years.


If you or someone you care about is smoking or ingesting a level of weed that makes their life become unmanageable, Betterhelp has counselors and therapists on hand to help for less that $90 per week.

Specializations | Burnout, Anxiety, Depression, Stress, Anger Management, Dependencies, Grief, Seasonal Depressive Disorder, Life Crisis, Smoking Cessation, Weed Cessation (among others)


Betterhelp Cost | The standard fee for BetterHelp therapy is only $60 to $90 per week or $240 to $360 per month.


Key Takeaways |

  • Largest online therapy platform
  • Low cost
  • Good for stopping weed
  • Messaging
  • Live video
  • Phone calls
  • Live chat
  • No lock in contracts
  • Cancel anytime
  • Licensed and accredited therapists


Discounts Available | We have negotiated a generous 20% discount for readers of our website. Press Here to get 20% Off


  • 1
    1.J. D. Brown and A. G. Winterstein, Potential Adverse Drug Events and Drug–Drug Interactions with Medical and Consumer Cannabidiol (CBD) Use – PMC, PubMed Central (PMC).; Retrieved September 27, 2022, from
  • 2
    2.G. Lafaye, L. Karila, L. Blecha and A. Benyamina, Cannabis, cannabinoids, and health – PMC, PubMed Central (PMC).; Retrieved September 27, 2022, from
  • 3
    3.J. D. Brown and A. G. Winterstein, Potential Adverse Drug Events and Drug–Drug Interactions with Medical and Consumer Cannabidiol (CBD) Use – PMC, PubMed Central (PMC).; Retrieved September 27, 2022, from